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2 edition of A salt gradient solar pond for solar heat collection and long term storage found in the catalog.

A salt gradient solar pond for solar heat collection and long term storage

A salt gradient solar pond for solar heat collection and long term storage

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Published by Commission of theEuropean Communities Directorate-General Information Market and Innovation in Luxembourg .
Written in English


Edition Notes

StatementP.J. Unsworth... [et al.].
SeriesEnergy
ContributionsUnsworth, P. J., Commission of the European Communities. Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14936151M
ISBN 100119704390

Solar ponds are small artificial lakes of a few meters deep that are used to store solar energy. The rise of heated (and thus less dense) water to the surface is prevented by adding salt at the pond bottom. In a typical salt gradient solar pond, the density of water increases in the gradient zone, as shown in Fig. 1–55, and the density can be.


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A salt gradient solar pond for solar heat collection and long term storage Download PDF EPUB FB2

A salt gradient solar pond is an open salt pond which combines solar heat collection with long term storage. Unsworth P.J., Al-Saleh N. () Salt Gradient Solar Pond for Solar Heat Collection and Long Term Storage. In: Den Ouden C.

(eds) First E.C. Conference on Solar Heating. Springer, Dordrecht. DOI ; Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht; Print ISBN ; Online ISBN Cited by: 3.

Work is described concerning the instrumentation, thermal modelling and laboratory tests on a salt gradient solar pond to be used for heat collection and storage. A densitameter capable of measuring the salinity to approximately one part in 10 4 is described.

It balances the upward buoyancy force on a small disk like buoy, by a downward magnetic force, from a solenoid acting on a permanent magnet attached to the Cited by: 3.

Hot water storage has been studied extensively, particularly for space and water heating, see, for instance, Lavan and Thompson, Cabelli Jaluria and Gupta and Guo and Wu Salt-gradient solar ponds Author: Yogesh Jaluria.

A solar pond may be used as a large area collector and for the storage of solar energy. The salt‐gradient solar pond is a body of saline water in which the concentration increases with depth. This density gradient inhibits thermal convection, with the result that solar radiation reaching the lower region is trapped and the temperature is by: 2.

A salt gradient heat-preserving solar pond is built by clay; black ethylene-propylene-diene monomer waterproof coiled material, geomembrane or high density polyethylene spraying canvas and the like are laid at the bottom surface of the pond as the mat; a heat exchanging pipeline or an electric heating device is arranged m above the bottom of the pond; lithium-rich brine which is prepared by freezing and solarization is directly poured into the salt gradient heat-preserving solar pond.

One way to overcome these problems is to use a large body of water for the collection and storage of solar energy.

This concept is called a solar pond. Principle of a solar pond In a clear natural pond about 30~ solar radiation reaches a depth of 2 metres.

This solar radiation is absorbed at the bottom of the pond. Soteris A. Kalogirou, in Solar Energy Engineering, Applications. Solar ponds can be used to provide energy for many different types of applications.

The smaller ponds have been used mainly for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water production, whereas the larger ponds are proposed for industrial process heat, electric power generation, and desalination.

Salt gradient solar ponds have advantages for long-term energy storage. In contrast, nonsalt solar ponds such as membrane stratified ponds and shallow solar ponds, are more suitable for short-term energy storage because the temperature rise of the pond water is rapid. Solar ponds arelarge-scale energy collectors with integral heat storage for supplying thermalenergy.

It can be use for various applications, such as process heating, waterdesalination, refrigeration, drying and power generation. WHAT IS A SOLAR POND A solar pond is a body of water that collects and stores solar energy.

A solar pond is a pool of saltwater which collects and stores solar thermal energy. The saltwater naturally forms a vertical salinity gradient also known as a " halocline ", in which low-salinity water floats on top of high-salinity water.

The layers of salt solutions. The solar pond is filled with fresh water up to m from bottom; this is approximately equal to the thickness of the storage zone and half of the gradient layer. Now solid salt crystals are added to the bottom of the pond and allowed to dissolve to create concentrated brine with around 25% salinity; this requires about kg of salt per m2.

a more stable, long- term SP operation. Fig. 1: Schematic of a closed cycle salt gradient solar pond 3. STABILITY OF THE GRADIENT ZONE A SGSP works as a collector and storage system because the stratified layer acts as a transparent insulator.

Salinity-gradient solar technologies is a generic name given to the application of salinity gradient in a body of water for the purpose of collecting and storing solar energy. One type of salinity-gradient solar technoloogy is called the salinty gradient solar pond, and considerable research has been devoted to solar pond development.

Salt Gradient Solar Pond. Gunasegarane. Abstract—Solar pond output is characterized by the magnitude and temperature of the thermal energy stored which in turn depends on the pond depth and the surface area as well as the local climatic conditions. Hence, the design of a solar pond involves determining the zone depths matching to a.

• A solar pond is mass of shallow water about 1 – 3 m deep with a large collection area, which acts as a heat trap. • This also called salt-gradient solar pond or non-convecting solar pond. • When solar radiation strikes the pond, most of it is absorbed by the surface at the bottom of the pond.

of different variables on the solar pond performance. Concept of the Non-convective Salt Gradient Solar Pond Non-convective solar pond shown in figure 1 is an ideal system that combines two functions, collection and storage of solar energy in one unit.

This is available in large quantities, cheap, and has high specific heat capacity. Figure. Salt Gradient Ponds At the very bottom of the salt gradient pond is a dark layer that can absorb heat.

This is usually a liner made of butyl rubber or other dark material. In addition to helping the water absorb the heat, it helps protect the nearby soil and groundwater from being contaminated by.

4 Solar energy collection and storage Brian Norton Solar thermal energy collectors Overview Flat plate solar energy collectors Evacuated tube collectors Collector components Integral collector storage systems Integral passive solar water heaters Salt gradient solar ponds Concentrators.

pond. His work showed that the development of a salt gradient solar pond is a possibility. The solar pond possibility was theoretically substantiated by Weinberger (11) inwho analysed the Physics of the solar pond. He predicted the performance of the solar pond by solving the heat conduction and salt diffusion equations analytically.

Solar ponds are a type of passive solar energy technology whereby pools of saltwater are used to collect and store solar thermal energy — making use of the natural formation of.

Keywords—Finite Difference method, Salt-gradient solar-pond, Solar energy, Transient heat and mass transfer. INTRODUCTION HE solar pond is described as an artificial large body of water reservoir that collects and stores solar energy. It is about 1 to 3 meters deep, and the bottom of the pond.

A salinity gradient solar pond is an integral collection and storage device of solar energy. By virtue of having built-in thermal energy storage, it can be used irrespective of time and season. Most of the solar ponds operated today, however, are artificial, simulating natural solar ponds but taking.

Salt Gradient Solar Pond (SGSP) is solar energy collector integrated with energy storage system. The salt-water of solar pond forms a vertical salinity gradient, also known as a "halocline", in which low-salinity water floats on top of high-salinity water.

The layer of salt. Shyamal G. Chakrabarty, Uday S. Wankhede, Pramod V. Walke, Trushar B. Gohil, Effect of Ground Condition on the Storage Zone Temperature of Salinity Gradient Solar Pond, Smart Technologies for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, /_54, (), ().

sensible heat in a solar pond containing dissolved salt (NaCl), the latter helping to create a stable density-gradient. The sto-rage capacity depends on the ponds depth: the salt concentra-tion increasing with depth in the solar pond.

It has been rea-lized recently that solar ponds can be an economically-viable source of heat. Solar pond, any large human-made body of salt water that collects and stores solar energy, thereby providing a sustainable source of heat and gh research on the practical applications of solar ponds did not begin until the late s, a natural lake particularly well-suited for use as a solar pond was discovered in the Transylvania region of eastern Europe in the early s.

Salt gradient lakes, which exhibit an increase in temperature with depth, occur naturally. A salt gradient solar pond is a body of saline water in which the salt concentration increases with depth, from a very low value at the surface to near saturation at the depth of usually m (Tabor, ).

The density gradient inhibits free convection, and the result is that solar radiation is trapped. Solar ponds can provide thermal energy for domestic heating for space and water or power generation and desalination processes.

The heat from a solar pond can be used in a Rankine cycle to produce mechanical energy and electricity. Figure 3 illustrates the structure and average heat losses to the ground and atmosphere.

On experimental set up of solar pond with the salt concentration varied in the range of g by adding the water stored in the pond is analyzed. The temperature measured at different concentration of salt helps to extract sensible heat which could as energy storage.

Solar thermal energy (STE) is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors.

Solar thermal collectors are classified by the United States Energy Information Administration as low- medium- or high-temperature collectors. Low-temperature collectors are generally unglazed and used to. The second system uses a salt gradient within a water filled pond.

The gradient prevents natural convective currents from dissipating the collected energy. The gradient pond has a solar heated layer within the pond. In this layer, a heat exchanger is installed to retrieve the collected solar energy. A solar pond of this design is providing. solar pond has become the research direction of researchers in recent years.

Some researchers have studied reducing the heat dissipation of solar pond and increasing the heat storage of solar pond to improve the thermal efficiency of solar pond. Jayaprakash established a small solar pond with a surface area of m2 and m depth. The Miamisburg Solar Pond is the largest functional, salt-gradient solar pond in the US.

It provides low-cost solar energy collection and low temperature heat storage. The heat in the pond is removed by use of a copper-tube heat exchanger which has a surface area of m/sup 2/ ( ft/sup 2/).

temperature distribution in the gradient zone of conventional solar pond has been developed as: A schematic diagram of a salt gradient solar pond (SGSP) with corrugated bottom surface is shown in Fig Typically, it is about 1 to 2 m deep with a thick durable plastic liner laid at the bottom.

Salts, whose solubility in water increases strongly with temperature, can be utilized as a solute in the equilibrium solar pond.

In solutions of such salts, a temperature gradient usually gives rise to thermal diffusion of salt from lower to higher temperature zones in the fluid (negative Soret effect).

The reject concentrate from the primary desalination process, such as reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), or MSF, provides make-up water to the salinity- gradient solar pond (SGSP), which in turn provides feed brine to a MEMS. The highly saline brine from the MEMS will be fed to a brine concentrator and recovery system (BCRS).

Solar Pond A solar pond is the pond of gradient salinity which traps the heat from lake absorbs heat from the sun. Normally, heat is lost as warm water rises to the surface and cools by evaporation. But water is a VERY poor conductor of heat and if this circulation can be stopped, the heat can be trapped in the bottom of the lake.

Sincethe m 2 salt gradient solar pond facility in El Paso, Texas, has operated with a temperature difference between the upper and lower zones of 55 to 75° C while delivering industrial process heat, grid-connected electrical power, and thermal energy for the experimental production of desalted water.

Because the El Paso solar pond is an inland facility, it is necessary to recycle. to the surface and lost. In solar ponds, various techniques are used to limit convection or heat loss and thus trap a substantial amount of energy within the pond.

For the purposes of this review, solar ponds will be classified into three bdsic categories: Salt Gradient Solar Ponds (SGSP),-Shallow Solar Ponds. Abstract. Heat transfer fundamentals are considered along with solar radiation, flat plate collectors, optically concentrating collectors and reflectors, the transfer of the collected heat, the storage of the collected heat, long-term system performance, parametric studies, economic evaluation, solar systems design, passive heating systems, solar radiation tables, and solar radiation data on.years to establish, to demonstrate the feasibility of using a salt-gradient pond for industrial heating [7].The solar pond is m long and 60 m wide and has a depth of m.

The pond was then filled with water and tonnes of common salt was dissolved in it to make dense brine [8].be eliminated. The salt requirements are less in solar gel pond when compared to salt gradient ponds thereby reducing cost and environmental hazard. The disadvantage is the cost of the chemicals required for making the gel is high.

Experimental 2 model for the maximum storage temperature of 60 0 C is %. From the above investigations.