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2 edition of Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity found in the catalog.

Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity

E. E. Kovalev

Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity

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Published by Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in Bethesda, Md .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Statementcompiled by E.E. Kovalev, O.A. Smirnova.
SeriesAFRRI Contract Report 96-1.
ContributionsSmirnova, O. A.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsMLCM 99/02261 (Q)
The Physical Object
Pagination198 p. :
Number of Pages198
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL616194M
LC Control Number96213678

Introduction. From to , the number of computed tomographic (CT) examinations performed in the United States increased at an annual rate of more than 10% (1).With this expanded use comes concern about elevated population risk of cancer incidences from CT radiation exposure (2).A particular concern has been the use of CT in the pediatric population (3), as children are not only more.


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Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity by E. E. Kovalev Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity. [E E Kovalev; Research Center of Spacecraft Radiation Safety (Moscow, Russia); Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (U.S.)].

Author(s): Kovalev,E E(Evgeniĭ Evgenʹevich); Research Center of Spacecraft Radiation Safety (Moscow, Russia); Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (U.S.) Title(s): Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity[microform] / compiled by Research Center of Spacecraft Radiation Safety ; principal investigator, E.E.

Kovalev, senior. Variability in radiation dose estimates from nuclear and computed tomography diagnostic cancer risk value for any given individual from a given radiation exposure (e.g., due to a myocardial perfusion radiation dosimetry to cancer risk is based on the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis.

This hypothesis is the. Clarification of individual variation and age dependency in radiosensitivity is important for radiation risk estimation. We measured the in vitro dose-survival response of human peripheral blood T. Kovalev E.E., Smirnova O.A. Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity.

AFRRI Contract Report Bethesda, MD: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Google ScholarAuthor: Olga A. Smirnova. Radiation Dose from Cardiac CT Scanning and Lifetime Risks. Einstein et al. examined the radiation dose and lifetime risk of cancer from older slice CTA and later from slice CT scanners.

The authors presented their estimation of radiation effective doses by different cardiac imaging modalities. The extent to which variability in radiosensitivity is due to intrinsic genetic factors will determine whether patient adverse reactions to radiotherapy, and/or radiotherapy-induced second cancer risk, can be best predicted by classifications based on generic parameters (age, gender, diet, lifestyle factors, etc.) or by individual assessment of genetic profiles.

Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity. in: COSPAR colloquium No. 6, International round table on radiation risk in humans on exploratory. Kovalev, E.E. and Smirnova, O.A.,Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity, AFRRI Contract Report 96–1, Defense Nuclear Agency Contract DNAC, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research.

Kovalev, E.E. and Smirnova, O.A. () Estimation of Radiation Risk Based on the Concept of Individual Variability of Radiosensitivity, AFRRI Contract ReportArmed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Google Scholar. biologic damage to the body of the exposed individual caused by exposure to ionizing radiation neutron) and the variability in radiosensitivity of the specific organ or body part irradiated through the use of appropriate weighting factors.

These factors determine the: overall harm to those biologic components and the risk of developing a. approach based on individual radiosensitivity testing and discuss how individual radiosensi- low-dose ionizing radiation, individual variability W e rather illustrate the concept of cell.

If your doctor has ordered a test and you want to calculate your risk or if you want to calculate your risk based on studies you have already had. Login. FAQ of the Month.

Top 5 Ways to Decrease your Exposure to Medical Radiation. NOW AVAILABLE. FREE DOWNLOAD:Patient Radiation Calculate your dose and estimate cancer risk from studies. Radiosensitivity is a susceptibility of cells toward damaging effects of ionizing radiation, and radioresistance is a property opposite to radiosensitivity.

Both parameters depend on various factors, such as blood supply, tumor size, the presence of oxygen, and others. Radiosensitivity depends mainly on the period of the cell cycle.

P-2b 1 Individual Radiation Hypersensitivity and Radiological Protection G. Heinemann1 and 2 1 Fachverband für Strahlenschutz,Arbeitskreis Strahlenwirkung - Strahlenbiologie D Leinfelden - Echterdingen,Germany 2EnBW Energie Baden - Württemberg, D Karlsruhe, Germany Individuals with radiation hypersensitivity represent a challenge in terms of radiation protection.

Since the RSI score is an estimate of radiosensitivity, it can only detect clinical differences if radiation therapy has an impact on the underlying cancer. The sample size of the cohort that did not receive radiation therapy was also small (n = 25), and as a result, few conclusions can be drawn from this group of patients.

Radiosensitivity is the relative susceptibility of cells, tissues, organs, organisms, or other substances to the injurious action of radiation. In general, it has been found that cell radiosensitivity is directly proportional to the rate of cell division and inversely proportional to the degree of cell differentiation.

Telomeres represent a compelling biomarker of individual radiosensitivity and risk, as exposure can result in dysfunctional telomere pathologies that coincidentally overlap with many radiation. Characterization of the contribution of and type of interaction (additive, synergistic, etc) between individual species of the space radiation environment on radiation-associated cancer risk Data-driven models of radiation quality effects that can be implemented to scale epidemiological excess cancer risk estimates to the space radiation.

Currently, a linear no-threshold model is used to estimate health risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation, a prevalent exposure in the general population, because the direct estimation from epidemiological studies suffers from uncertainty.

This model has been criticized based on unique biology of low-dose radiation. Individual variability in radiation-induced apoptosis.

To assess cellular response to radiation, we exposed B cells from 99 individuals to 10 Gy of IR and measured cell death by two assays: caspase 3/7 levels and cytotoxicity.

These measurements were made before radiation and 24 h after exposure. In addition, physiological factors, such as age, sex, and DNA repair-deficiency, are clearly important in estimating the biological effects induced by exposure to radiation. In fact, NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (e.g., age, gender, and smoking history) and uses them.

Therefore, to more accurately estimate individual patient risks, we further implemented a metric of risk, termed risk index, defined as where H T is the equivalent dose for organ or tissue T and r T is the sex- age- and tissue-specific risk coefficient (cases per exposed to Gy) for lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence.

Estimation of potential accident frequencies and evaluation of event consequences are central steps for the whole QRA process (Fig.

3: analysis of initiating events, and 4: analysis of consequences).Crowl and Louvar [14] state that risk analysis basically involves the estimation of accident frequencies and consequences using engineering and mathematical techniques. The theory of radiation hormesis suggests that radiation doses below mGy are _____.

beneficial A study of an irradiated population which showed a relative risk factor below would indicate that the population had a _____ risk.

What is radiosensitivity of the eye dependent on -Estimation of late radiation effects in large populations without precise knowledge of their radiation dose (Relative risk ranges from 1 - 2) -The theory that suggests very low radiation doses (less than 10 rad) are beneficial.

What is excess risk of a risk estimate-The difference. 2 days ago  A search for effective methods for the assessment of patients’ individual response to radiation is one of the important tasks of clinical radiobiology.

This review summarizes available data on the use of ex vivo cytogenetic markers, typically used for biodosimetry, for the prediction of individual clinical radiosensitivity (normal tissue toxicity, NTT) in cells of cancer patients undergoing.

If the G 2 radiosensitivity assay of Jones et al. 14 turns out to be able to identify a range of sensitive individuals who are cancer prone, it might be feasible to use this method as a screening assay to at least allow the range of sensitivities to be incorporated into a risk estimate or to guide investigators to estimate dose limits for.

Kovalev EE, Smirnova OA Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity. Bethesda (MD): Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute; p. Report No.: AFRRI Contact Report [Google Scholar] Platchinda YI. Application of discriminant analysis in biological dosimeter.

The latest report, BEIR VII, whose stated purpose was to provide risk estimate for exposure to low-dose, low Linear-Energy-Transfer (LET) radiation in human subjects, will most likely be a major. Genomic Instability. GI is a concept that describes delayed genetic alterations observed in the progeny of the exposed cells many generations after the initial radiation insult.The importance of the discovery of GI lies in the recognition that cell populations surviving radiation exposure and their progeny which show no evidence of mutations or altered fitness will not necessarily.

Epidemiological evidence from the studies of in utero radiation exposure has shown that a dose of 6 mGy is associated with an increase in cancer risk []. A subsequent comprehensive review in by Doll and Wakeford [] concluded that fetal irradiation in utero with diagnostic X-rays giving an organ dose of 10 mGy produced a consequent increase in the risk of childhood cancer.

Effective dose (E) was introduced by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) to provide a summation of radiation doses to tissues and organs for radiological a non-uniform irradiation, E is designed to provide an estimate of th corresponding uniform whole-body dose that would result in the same stochastic detriment.

Kovalev, E.E., Smirnova, O.A.: Estimation of radiation risk based on the concept of individual variability of radiosensitivity. AFRRI Contract Report Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda () Google Scholar. However, this evolution has also led to a noticeable increase in the radiologic procedure–based radiation dose delivered to the patient population, a fact that has made headlines in the general press (see, for example, the J issue of the New York Times).

The use of ionizing radiation. The concept of radiosensitivity is clearly defined each day in radiation therapy clinics by the 2–5% of patients who develop adverse reactions to conventional doses of radiation.

However, little is understood about why this happens or how to predict it. Risk Estimate. Risk estimates require knowledge of the selective properties of radiation-induced mutations in somatic and germ cells (for the latter in the subsequent embryonic environment) as well as other factors influencing mutation expression.

From: Advances in Radiation Biology, Related terms: Dose Response; Cohort Studies; Meta-Analysis. tion sensitivity and increased risk for cancer. Although approximately 10% of the population may be radiosensitive, current radiological protection limits, based on the “average” individual, should be retained.

Radiation is a weak environmental carcinogen. Diet and cigarette smoking each account for 15–18 times more cancer deaths. Radiosensitivity is a much less important host factor. Based on between‐subject variability in the parameters, and, individual TSE curves were computed for each of the 80 individuals.

These are shown in Figure 4. Although the individual TSE values remain approximately the same, there is noticeable variation in curvature, and, hence, variation in synergy between different individuals.

Brody AS, Frush DP, Huda W, Brent RL, Radiology AAoPSo. Radiation risk to children from computed tomography. Pediatrics ; Cardis E, Vrijheid M, Blettner M, et al.

The country collaborative study of cancer risk among radiation workers in the nuclear industry: Estimates of radiation-related cancer risks. The w R values for photons, electrons and muons of all energies remain 1, although a number of published data show that the RBE values vary with the energy of the photons and generally to increase with decreasing photon energies.

These studies are mainly in vitro investigations with cells ().The low-energy photon radiation is strongly attenuated in the surface tissues, however, and its.The spatial and temporal variability of crop parameters are fundamental in precision agriculture.

Remote sensing of crop canopy can provide important indications on the growth variability and help understand the complex factors influencing crop yield. Plant biomass is considered an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation, especially for grassland and cover crops.The lifetime risk estimates shown in Tables, and are accompanied by subjective confidence intervals that quantify the most important uncertainty sources: (1) sampling variability in risk model parameter estimates from the LSS data, (2) the uncertainty about transport of risk from a Japanese (LSS) to a U.S.

population, and (3.